Local Plan Review - Publication Plan

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Appendix I

Parking Standards

This Appendix sets down the current recommended parking and electric vehicle charging standards for new developments within the district.

Parking standards are an important element of the council's land use/transportation policy. Many of the numerous development applications made to the council include proposals for parking space adjacent to the development and it is therefore essential for the council to have a parking policy.

The NPPF seeks to encourage a reduction in car usage by promoting sustainable transport choices but also seeks to remove maximum parking standards and encourage local authorities and local communities to set parking standards at a level which best reflect the needs and requirements of their area. In this context, the standards set our below are to be used as a starting point for scheme design, but ultimately the appropriate level of parking will need to have regard to the specific factors set out in Policy HC13.

The parking standards below reflect the number of spaces anticipated to be required for different land uses, but ultimately they should be used in a positive and, in appropriate circumstances, flexible manner as an aid to development. The standards have been reviewed through comparison to similar local authorities in terms of levels of car ownership and urban/rural classification. Residential parking standards in particular have been revised to balance the need to reduce embodied carbon and provide attractive landscaping within a scheme with the need to provide sufficient car parking, offering developers greater flexibility to respond to these policy requirements. This recognises that avoiding unnecessary over-provision of parking spaces is one of the key ways in which residential schemes can reduce their embodied carbon footprint[11].

Required cycle parking standards are included within these, recognising that has the potential to be a substitute for short car trips, particularly those under 5km and to form part of a longer journey by public transport. In most cases the provision for cycle parking should be made within developments, although in some cases there may be scope for communal cycle parking area e.g. within village/town centres.

Table 10: Recommended parking standards for developments

Use class

Car parking

Cycle parking and storage

B2 Industry

1 space per 25 sq.m. up to 250 sq.m., then 1 space per 50 sq.m. (all gross floor space)

1 space per 300 sq.m. gross floor area, secure weatherproof shelter

B8 Warehouses

1 space per 80 sq.m. gross floor space, plus adequate HGV parking and manoeuvring areas to serve the development, having regard to a typical end-user's requirements for HGV usage.

1 space per 300 sq.m. gross floor area, secure weatherproof shelter

C1 Hotels

1 space per 3 employees employed at busiest time plus 1 space per resident staff

Guests: 1 space per bedroom
Additional spaces may be required for facilities open to non-guests (e.g. spas or conference facilities)

1 space per 5 staff 1 space per 10 guest rooms 1 space per 60 sq.m. for restaurant/entertainment area, secure weatherproof shelter

C3 Traditional Housing

Per dwelling:
5 bed plus - 3 spaces within the curtilage

3 & 4 bed: 2 spaces within the curtilage

1 & 2 bed: 1 space within the curtilage plus 1 space per 3 dwellings for visitors

Minimum 1 secure space per unit[12]

C3 Sheltered housing, elderly persons homes

Other Residents/Visitors: 1 car space per 3 dwellings/units of accommodation/bedroom
Non-resident care staff: 1 space per 3 staff present at busiest time
Visitors: 1 space per 4 flats

Minimum 1 secure space per resident staff, secure weatherproof shelter

C3 Self-contained flats/ apartments

Residents: 1 space per flat
Visitors: 1 space per 4 flats

Minimum 1 secure space per unit, secure weatherproof shelter (internal or external)

E.(a) Retail

Staff: 1 space per 95 sqm gross floor space
Customers: 1 space per 20sqm gross floor space

1 space per 200 sq.m. gross floor area, secure weatherproof shelter

E.(b) Restaurants/ cafe

Staff: 1 space per 85 sq.m. gross floor space

Diners: 1 space per 5 sq.m. of dining area or 1 lorry space (artic) per 3sq.m. dining area in the case of transport cafes

1 space per 60 sq.m. gross floor area (excluding associated residential accommodation), secure weatherproof shelter

E.(c) Offices (financial & professional services)

Staff & Visitors: 1 space per 20 sq.m. gross floor space

1 space per 200 sq.m. gross floor area, secure weatherproof shelter

E.(d) Sports centres

Staff and visitors:1 space per 2 persons staffing and using the premises at the busiest time

1 space per 10 car parking spaces, secure weatherproof shelter

E.(e) Clinics/ GP practices /Health Centres

Staff: 1 space per GP.
1 space for each other medical member of staff employed at busiest time
1 space for each 2.5 non-medical member of staff employed at busiest time
Visitors: 3 spaces per consulting room

1 space per 3 consulting rooms, secure weatherproof shelter

E.(f) Nursery Schools

1 space per member of teaching staff
1 drop-off space per 10 children

1 space per 5 staff plus 1 space per 200 sq.m. for visitors, secure weatherproof shelter

E.(g) Offices

1 space per 20 sq.m. up to 200 sq.m., then 1 space per 30 sq.m. (all gross floor space)

1 space per 300 sq.m. gross floor area, secure weatherproof shelter

F.1(a) Primary/ Secondary schools

1 space per member of teaching staff
1 space per 3 member of non-teaching staff
A suitable part of the hard play area to be allocated and suitably constructed so it can be used by cars on school open days, etc
Suitable space should be identified for buses to manoeuvre to allow for pupil drop off and pick up

1 space per 5 staff plus 1 space per 3 students, secure weatherproof shelter

F.1(a) Colleges/ adult training centres

1 space per member of teaching staff
1 space per 10 full-time equivalent students

1 space per 5 staff plus 1 space per 3 students, weatherproof shelter

F.1(d) Libraries

Staff: 2 spaces up to 300 sq.m. gross floor area, 6 spaces above 300 sq.m. gross floor area
Visitors: 1 space per 50 sq.m. gross floor area

1 space per 15 staff plus 1 space per 60 sq.m, weatherproof shelter

F.1(e) Assembly Halls

Staff: 1 space per 2.5 employees employed at busiest time
1 space per 5 sq.m. public floor space

1 space per 10 car parking spaces, weatherproof shelter

F.1(f) Churches

1 space per 5 seats

-

F.2(c) Tennis/ golf/ bowling (greens)

1 space per 3 sq.m. of indoor public floor area
2 spaces per court
1 space per lane of any driving range
2 spaces per golf hole

1 space per 10 car parking spaces, weatherproof shelter

F.2(c) Cricket, football, rugby

1 space per 3 sq.m. of public floor area of buildings
12 spaces and 1 space for a coach per pitch
Suitable space should be identified for coaches to manoeuvre to allow for player drop off and pick up

1 space per 10 car parking spaces, weatherproof shelter

Public Houses

Staff: 1 space per 85 m2 gross floor space
Bar customers: 1 space per 2.5 sq.m. of public drinking area
Food customers: 1 space per 3 sq.m. of public dining area

1 space per 60 sq.m. gross floor area (excluding associated residential accommodation), weatherproof shelter

Day care and adult training centres

In particular centres for physically handicapped will require accommodation for special passenger vehicles with tail lift, etc.
1 space per member of staff at busiest time Visitors: 1 space for a unit of 5 persons

1 space per 5 staff, weatherproof shelter

Vehicle service, tyre, exhaust garage

3 vehicle spaces per each service/repair bay
1 car space for every 40 sq.m. of gross floor area

-

Car sales

Staff: 1 space per 25 sq.m.
Customers: 1 space per 40 sq.m. of gross sales floor area plus 1 space per 10 outside display places
For ancillary workshop/storage areas and parts departments: 3 vehicle spaces per each service/repair bay
1 car space for every 40 sq.m. of gross floor area

-

Car wash facilities

5 queuing spaces

-

Caravan sites

Occupiers: 1 space per caravan
Visitors: 1 space per 5 caravans

-

Garden centres

Staff and customers: 1 space per 50 sq.m. sales area
For café apply E.(b) standards

-

Marinas

1 space per 2 mooring berths

-

Hot food takeaway

1 space per 2 staff 1 space per 3 sq.m. of waiting area. These standards may be relaxed or waived where public parking is readily available nearby.

-

Using the standards

The standards apply to new development, extensions and changes of use. When considering an extension to an existing use, the standard will be applied only to the extension and any shortfall in parking provision for the existing building will not be required to be met. When considering a redevelopment or change of use, the level of parking provision will relate to the requirements of the development as a whole.

Mixed uses will be assessed as a sum of the parking requirements of the individual elements of the scheme based on the standards, unless the timing of demand associated with individual uses can be shown to allow dual use of spaces. In mixed developments where the main parking demands take place at different times e.g. daytime and evening, an element of dual use of parking spaces will be acceptable.

Cycle Parking Design Specifications

With the exception of traditional houses where cycle storage can be provided internally, all cycle parking should be provided in a secure weatherproof shelters in the first instance. Storage facilities should provide the ability to secure both wheels and the frame of a bike (unless lockers are used), should be protected from the elements and should be accompanied by clear signage. Cycle parking should be situated as close as possible to the destination that they serve, should benefit from good lighting and natural surveillance and should be at least as accessible (if not more so) than car parking provided by a scheme.

Car Parking Design Specifications

The dimensions of a car parking space to be used in new development is 2.4m x 4.8m. Where a parking space has a restriction either side (e.g. a fence or side wall) then a width of 3m should be used. An aisle between parking bays set at 90 degrees to it shall have a width of 6m. Alternatively, an aisle between parking bays set at 45 degrees to the traffic flow may have a minimum width of 3m. Where garage frontages face the public highway, there should be a minimum distance of 6.0m between the garage and the highway boundary, to allow vehicles to stand clear of the highway whilst the garage door is being opened. For single garages the minimum internal dimensions should be 6.0m x 3.0m. For double garages the minimum internal dimensions of 6.0m x 6.0m.

With regard to disabled parking, the dimensions should be 2.4m x 4.8m plus a 1.2m accessibility zone between and a 1.2m safety zone on the vehicular side of the parking bays, with a dropped kerb when there is a pedestrian route on the other side of the parking bay. The Building Regulations requirements specify that parking spaces for people with disabilities should be at least 3.6m wide and 6.0m long in order to allow occupants of vehicles to get in and out of vehicles safely and to provide access to the rear of the vehicle for wheelchair storage. Disabled parking should be provided on firm and level ground and as close as feasible to the main entrance of the buildings.

Where the provision of lorry parking spaces is involved in any development proposal, they should range between 13.5m x 3.6m to 17.5m x 4.7m depending on the type of vehicles anticipated. All new employment uses and extensions to existing premises will be required to provide adequate on-site parking for employees, visitors and deliveries, together with manoeuvring in accordance with these standards.

Parent and child parking should be provided for all E.(a) (and other similar sui generis) retail over 1,000 sq.m.

Surface parking must be designed so as to not detract from the streetscene and wider public realm, ensuring that concentrations of parking are appropriately landscaped within and around the car parking area to avoid unattractive and sterile areas. Safe, legible and attractive pedestrian routes through parking areas should be clearly defined through use of surface treatments and landscaping.

Electric Vehicle Charging Points

South Staffordshire has a higher level of car ownership per household than the West Midlands region and national averages. It is also heavily reliant on car journeys to provide access to employment, with high proportions of the district's residents commuting out of the area to jobs in neighbouring urban authorities. The district's largest source of carbon emissions is also from surface transport and this must be addressed if local plan is to play its part in delivering the rapid reductions in emissions necessary to achieve the government's carbon reduction targets.

As part of achieving these aims it is vitally important that the local plan facilities a rapid transition to electric vehicles within the plan period. To provide the charging infrastructure necessary to support this transition, the following minimum electric vehicle charging requirements will be required from new development.

Table 11: Electric vehicle (EV) charging standards for new developments

Residential development

EV charging requirement

Minimum charge point specification

Houses

1 fast charge socket per house, located on a parking space within the property's curtilage

7kw

Flats/Apartments

1 fast charge socket per dwelling, using both allocated and unallocated spaces where necessary

7kw

Non-residential development

EV charging requirement

Minimum charge point specification

B2 Industry (>500sqm)

B8 Warehouses (>1000sqm)

C1 Hotels
C2 Care/Nursing Home

E.(a) Retail (500 – 1,849sqm)

E.(c) Offices (financial & professional services) (>500sqm)

E.(d) Sports centres (>500sqm)

E.(e) Clinics/ GP practices /Health Centres

E.(g) Offices (>500sqm)

F.1(a) Primary/ Secondary schools

F.1(a) Colleges/ adult training centres

F.1(e) Assembly Halls (>500sqm)

20% of available spaces to be fitted with a fast charge socket

plus

A further 20% of available spaces to be provided with power supply to provide additional fast charge socket

7kw

Feeder pillar or equivalent permitting future connection

High demand, short stay land uses

EV charging requirement

Minimum charge point specification

Development with high demand and short stay trips in strategic locations, including (but not limited to)
- Motorway/ Strategic Service Stations,
- Large petrol filling stations
- Large scale (1,850sqm or more) retail

20% of available spaces to be fitted with a fast charge socket

7kw

A further 10% of available spaces to be provided with power supply to provide additional fast charge sockets

Feeder pillar or equivalent permitting future connection

1 or more rapid charge sockets

50kw Mode 4 (DC) multi-standard charge point.
400v AC 100Amp Triple Phase dedicated power supply.

Unless otherwise specified, all electric vehicle charge points delivered to meet these standards must be fitted with a universal socket and be a minimum of a Mode 3 specialised system for electric vehicle charging running from a dedicated circuit, or equivalent. It is the responsibility of the developer to ensure that the electricity supply is sufficient to meet future demands and that any power balancing technology is in place if required.


[11] UK Green Building Council – Building the Case for Net Zero: A case study for low carbon residential developments (February 2022)

[12] Dwellings with garages that have the minimum internal dimensions stated under 'Car Parking Design Specifications' can be considered to have a secure space. If no garage is to be provided, the development will need to include, and demonstrate on plans, a garden shed or bespoke cycle storage.

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