Local Plan Review - Publication Plan

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Appendix K

Glossary

Active Travel ­- Modes of travel that involve a level of activity. The term is often used interchangeably with walking and cycling, but active travel can also include trips made by wheelchair, mobility scooters, adapted cycles, e-cycles, scooters, as well as cycle sharing schemes.

Adoption – The final stage of the plan making process. The plan is adopted by resolution of a full meeting of the Local Planning Authority (LPA). This formally confirms the plan as council policy.

Affordable Housing – As per the Government NPPF definition: housing for sale or rent, for those whose needs are not met by the market. This includes: affordable housing for rent (such as social rent, affordable rent or at least 20% below local market rents), starter homes, discounted market sales housing, and other affordable routes to home ownership (such as shared ownership).

Authority Monitoring Report (AMR)– A report produced by the LPA to show how the Authority is performing against all agreed targets.

Appropriate Assessment (AA) – An assessment of the potential effects of a proposed plan – in combination with other plans and projects – on sites designated as part of a European network of designated nature conservation areas including Special Areas of Conservation (SACs). The Assessment itself is a statement that says whether the plan does, or does not, affect the integrity of the European site. The appropriate assessment forms part of the Habitats Regulations Appraisal (HRA) process.

Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) - An area with statutory national landscape designation, the primary purpose of which is to conserve and enhance natural beauty.

Biodiversity - The whole variety of life encompassing all genetics, species and ecosystem variations, including plants and animals.

Brownfield Land and Sites - See 'Previously Developed Land'.

Climate Change - Long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, wind and all other aspects of the Earth's climate, primarily considered to be the consequence of human activity and fossil fuel consumption.

Community Facilities - Community facilities provide for the health, welfare, social, educational, spiritual, recreational, leisure and cultural needs of the community.

Community Forest - A large area of land transformed into a wooded landscape by a partnership of local authorities, national agencies and private, voluntary and community organisations to support employment, recreation, education and wildlife. The Forest of Mercia is a Community Forest.

Conservation Area - Areas of special architectural or historic interest, the character, appearance or setting of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance.

Cycle Network - An integrated network of both on and off road routes to facilitate an easier and safer journey for cyclists.

Density - In the case of residential development, a measurement of either the number of habitable rooms per hectare or the number of dwellings per hectare.

Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities (DLUHC) The government department responsible for planning, housing, homelessness and levelling up. It supports communities across the UK to thrive, making them great places to live and work.

Design code - A set of illustrated design requirements that provide specific, detailed parameters for the physical development of a site or area. The graphic and written components of the code should build upon a design vision, such as a masterplan or other design and development framework for a site or area.

Design guide - A document providing guidance on how development can be carried out in accordance with good design practice, often produced by a local authority.

Development - Development is defined under the 1990 Town and Country Planning Act as "the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operation in, on, over or under land, or the making of any material change in the use of any building or other land." Most forms of development require planning permission (see also "permitted development").

Development Management - The process whereby a local planning authority manages, shapes, and considers the merits of a planning application and whether it should be given permission having regard to the development plan.

Development Plan– Also known as the Local Plan, the term given to the documents setting out the adopted planning policies to guide development within the district. Decisions on planning applications are to be taken in accordance with the Development Plan unless material considerations indicate otherwise.

Development Plan Documents (DPDs) – Spatial planning documents prepared by the LPA and subject to Independent Examination. For South Staffordshire, they include the Local Plan, the Policies Map and any adopted Neighbourhood Plans. DPDs are required to have a Sustainability Appraisal (SA).

Economic Development Needs Assessment (EDNA) - An objective assessment of the quantity and type of employment space required within the Local Planning Authority area or Functional Economic Market Area.

Embodied carbon/lifecycle emissions – The carbon emissions associated with the extraction and processing of materials and the energy and water consumption used by the factory in producing products and constructing the building. It also includes the 'in-use' stage (maintenance, replacement, and emissions associated with refrigerant leakage) and 'end of life' stage (demolition, disassembly, and disposal of any parts of product or building) and any transportation relating to the above.

European Site -Nature conservation sites afforded the highest level of protection in the UK through European legislation. They include Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), candidate (cSAC), Special Protection Areas (SPA), proposed (pSPA), European offshore Marine Sites and Ramsar.

Evidence Base– The researched, documented, analysed and verified basis for all the components of a Local Plan. The work used to create the Local Plan can be published in the form of background papers.

First Homes Exception Site – An exception site (that is, a housing development that comes forward outside of local or neighbourhood plan allocations to deliver affordable housing) that delivers primarily First Homes.

Flood Risk Assessment - An assessment of the likelihood of flooding in a particular area so that development needs and mitigation measures can be carefully considered.

Fossil fuel - A natural fuel such as petroleum, coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms. The burning of fossil fuels by humans is the largest source of emissions of carbon dioxide, which is one of the greenhouse gases that allows radiative forcing and contributes to global warming.

Green Belt (not to be confused with the term 'greenfield')A statutory planning designation for open land around certain cities and large built-up areas, which aims to keep land permanently open or largely undeveloped. The purposes of Green Belt are to:

  • check the unrestricted sprawl of large built up areas;
  • prevent neighbouring towns from merging;
  • safeguard the countryside from encroachment;
  • preserve the setting and special character of historic towns; and
  • assist urban regeneration by encouraging the recycling of derelict and other urban land.

Greenfield Land or Site - Land (or a defined site) which has never been built on before or where the remains of any structure or activity have blended into the landscape over time.

Green Infrastructure - a network of green spaces and other environmental features including street trees, gardens, green roofs, community forests, parks, rivers, canals and wetlands. Green Infrastructure includes established green spaces and new sites and should thread through and surround the built environment and connect the urban area to its wider rural hinterland.

Gypsy and Travellers – The Government defines Gypsies and Travellers for planning purposes as 'Persons of a nomadic habit of life whatever their race or origin, including such persons who on grounds only of their own or their family's or dependants' educational or health needs or old age have ceased to travel temporarily, but excluding members of an organised group of travelling showpeople or circus people travelling together as such'.

Gypsy and Traveller Accommodation Needs Assessment (GTAA) – An assessment of the accommodation needs of Gypsies and Travellers which establishes the pitch requirements over the lifetime of the plan period.

Habitat– An area of nature conservation interest.

Habitat Regulations Assessment (HRA) – An assessment of the potential impacts of plans and programmes on sites designated as of European Importance for their nature conservation value.

Heritage Asset – A building, monument, site, place, area or landscape identified as have a degree of merit because of its heritage interest.

Historic Environment Record (HER) – A comprehensive resource of the historic environment of Staffordshire. It provides information about archaeological sites, historic buildings, historic landscape and other heritage features within Staffordshire. The baseline historic environment data contained in the HER underpins a wide range of work undertaken for the Historic Environment and decision making.

Historic Landscape Characterisation (HLC) – seeks to identify, and as far as possible, understand the historic development of today's landscape. It places emphasis on the contribution that past historic processes make to the character of the landscape as a whole, not just selected 'special sites' and can contribute to a wider landscape assessment.

Historic Parks and Gardens - A park or garden of special historic interest. Graded I (highest quality), II* or II. Designated by Historic England.

Housing Market Assessment – An objective assessment of the quantity and type of housing required within the Local Planning Authority area. This assessment incorporates the requirement within the NPPF to produce a local housing need assessment.

Independent Examination– An examination held in public by an Inspector appointed by the Secretary of State into the policies and proposals within a Development Plan Document (DPDs). The examination will consider the "soundness" of the document. Following the inspection, the Inspector will, where relevant, submit a report to the Local Planning Authority proposing possible amendments to the submitted plan.

Issues and Options – a non-statutory stage of the plan making process during which different site and policy options may be considered and issued for consultation.

Infrastructure – A broad term to define all the requirements that are needed to make places function efficiently and effectively. Infrastructure can range from large physical infrastructure such as roads and utilities; social infrastructure like health, educational and cultural programs, projects, networks and facilities; through to Green Infrastructure such as open spaces and allotments.

Landscape Character - The distinct and recognisable pattern of elements that occur consistently in a particular type of landscape. It reflects particular combinations of geology, landform, soils, vegetation, land use and human settlement.

Large Village Centre - The largest retail centres in the district, with the greatest number and range of Main Centre uses. Has more of a convenience store presence, as well as comparison goods shops and community, and other professional services which serve the needs of the settlement, with a catchment extending outside of the village.

Listed Building - A building of special architectural or historic interest. Graded I (highest quality), II* or II.

Local Development Document (LDD)– A local planning document which can be either a statutory Development Plan Document (DPD) or a non-statutory Supplementary Planning Document (SPD).

Local Development Scheme (LDS) – A document setting out the LPA's programme for the preparation of the Local Plan and any SPDs within a three-year period and a timetable for their production and review. It will also state which policies will be saved from the existing Local Plan.

Local Nature Reserve (LNR) – Sites of importance for wildlife, geology, education or public enjoyment.

Local Plan – A collection of statutory Development Plan Documents (DPDs)prepared by the LPA that sets out policies and allocations for delivering the economic, environmental and social aims of the area. A number of SPDs will also provide additional guidance to the policies contained in the Local Plan.

Local Planning Authority (LPA) - The local authority or council that is empowered by law to exercise planning functions. Often the local borough or district council.

Local Transport PlanA five-year integrated transport strategy, prepared by local authorities in partnership with the community, seeking funding to help provide local transport projects. The plan sets out the resources predicted for delivery of the targets identified in the strategy.

Major Development – For housing, development where 10 or more homes will be provided, or the site has an area of 0.5 hectares or more. For non-residential development it means additional floorspace of 1,000m2 or more, or a site of 1 hectare or more, or as otherwise provided in the Town and Country Planning (Development Management Procedure) (England) Order 2015.

Material Consideration – A matter that should be taken into account in formulating planning policy and when determining a planning application.

Mixed Use (or mixed use development) - Provision of a mix of complementary uses, such as residential, community and leisure uses, on a site or within a particular area.

Monitoring (and review) – The process of measuring (in terms of quantity and quality) the changes in conditions and trends, impact of policies, performance of the plan against its objectives and targets, and progress in delivering outputs. Please also refer to Authority Monitoring Report (AMR).

National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) - The NPPF sets out the Government's planning policies for England and how these are expected to be applied. It sets out the Government's requirements for the planning system only to the extent that it is relevant, proportionate and necessary to do so. It provides a framework within which local people and their accountable councils can produce their own distinctive local and neighbourhood plans, which reflect the needs and priorities of their communities.

Nature Conservation - The protection, management and promotion of wildlife habitats for the benefit of wild species, as well as the communities that use and enjoy them.

Neighbourhood Centre - The smallest defined retail centres in the district, with a limited range and scale of facilities. The offer largely provides for a day-to-day convenience goods need, occasionally offering minor services for a very localised area. The majority of stores are the focus for 'top-up' shopping.

Neighbourhood Plan - A plan prepared by a parish council or neighbourhood forum for a designated neighbourhood area. In law this is described as a neighbourhood development plan in the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004.

Offsetting - Offsetting is the process of compensating for the remaining carbon emissions balance by contributing, usually financially, towards solutions to reduce emissions elsewhere.

Open Space - All space of public value, including not just land, but also areas of water such as rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs, which can offer opportunities for sport and recreation. They can also act as a visual amenity and a haven for wildlife.

Open Space Audit – An audit of the open spaces within the district including an assessment of facilities and character.

Out-of-Centre - In retail terms, a location that is clearly separate from the primary shopping area of a town centre but not necessarily outside the urban area.

Plan-led System - The principle that decisions upon planning applications should be made in accordance with adopted development plans (and DPDs), unless there are other material considerations that may indicate otherwise.

Planning & Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 - The Act updates elements of the 1990 Town & Country Planning Act. The Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 introduced a statutory system for regional planning; and a system for local planning known as Local Development Frameworks (LDFs). The local planning system has since been subject to government reforms and the details of which were set out in the Localism Act 2011 and the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF).

Planning Practice Guidance -National online planning guidance which gives greater detail to the national planning policy framework.

Pitch/plot– An area of land on a site/development generally home to one licensed household. They can be of varying sizes and have varying caravan occupancy levels. Often also referred to as a plot, particularly in relation to Travelling Showpeople. There is no agreed definition as to the size of a pitch.

Planning Obligations/S106 Agreements – Contributions secured by the council to help provide or fund infrastructure items or services that will help to make development acceptable in planning terms.

Preferred Options– During formal public consultation on a Development Plan Document (DPD), the LPA will offer preferred options and proposals. The council will offer those options, which are reasoned to be the most appropriate.

Previously Developed Land (PDL) or 'Brownfield' Land - Land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure, including the curtilage of the developed land (although it should not be assumed that the whole of the curtilage should be developed) and any associated fixed surface infrastructure. This excludes: land that is or was last occupied by agricultural or forestry buildings; land that has been developed for minerals extraction or waste disposal by landfill, where provision for restoration has been made through development management procedures; land in built-up areas such as residential gardens, parks, recreation grounds 71 and allotments; and land that was previously developed but where the remains of the permanent structure or fixed surface structure have blended into the landscape.

Policies Map– The component of a local plan showing the location of proposals in the plan, on an Ordnance Survey base map.

Public Open Space - Urban space, designated by a council, where public access may or may not be formally established, but which fulfils or can fulfil a recreational or non-recreational role (for example, amenity, ecological, educational, social or cultural usages).

Renewable Energy – Renewable energy technologies use natural energy sources to generate electricity and/or heating/cooling. Sources include solar, wind, wave, marine, hydro, etc.

Registered Provider– An organisation (such as a housing association) that provides social housing, and is registered with the Regulator of Social Housing. The organisation is required to meet specific standards to protect tenants and ensure they remain financially viable and properly governed.

Regulated carbon emissions – Emissions measured through the Building Regulations Standard Assessment Procedure, which are typically associated with a building's fixed installations for heating, hot water, cooling, ventilation, and lighting systems.

Rural Diversification - The expansion, enlargement or variation of the range of products or fields of operation of a rural business (branching out from traditional farming activities, for example new income generating enterprise like renewable energy).

Rural Exception Site – A small site used for affordable housing in perpetuity where sites would not normally be used for housing. Rural exception sites seek to address the needs of the local community by accommodating households who are either current residents or have an existing family or employment connection.

Safeguarded Land – A term to describe land that has been removed from the Green Belt to meet possible longer term development needs, beyond the current plan period.

Sequential approach/sequential test - A planning principle that seeks to identify, allocate or development certain types or locations of land before the consideration of others. For example, Brownfield housing sites before Greenfield sites, or town centre retail sites before out-of-centre sites.

Site Allocations – Sites that are proposed for development to meet the LPA's requirements set out in the Local Plan. Policies will identify any specific requirements for individual proposals.

Soundness - A term referring to the justification of a Development Plan Document. A DPD is considered "sound" and based upon good evidence unless it can be shown to be unsound.

Spatial Development - Changes in the distribution of activities in space and the linkages between them in terms of the use and development of land.

Spatial Planning - Spatial planning goes beyond traditional land use planning to bring together and integrate policies for the development and use of land with other policies and programmes which influence the nature of places and how they function. That will include policies which can impact on land use, for example by influencing the demands on, or needs for, development, but which are not capable of being delivered solely or mainly through the granting or refusal of planning permission and which may be implemented by other means.

Special Area of Conservation (SAC) – A site designated under the EC Habitats Directive and protected for its significant nature conservation value.

Specialist Housing – Homes designed to meet specialist needs of older people and other groups, including: age restricted general market housing, retirement living or sheltered housing, extra care housing or housing with care and residential care homes and nursing homes.

Stakeholders – People who have an interest in the activities and achievements of the council, including residents, local communities of interest, partners, employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers, opinion leaders, regulators and "hard to reach" groups.

Statement of Community Involvement (SCI)– A Local Development Document (LDD) that sets out the standards which the LPA intends to achieve in relation to involving the community in the preparation, alteration and continuing review of all Local Development Documents (LDDs) and in significant development control decisions, and also how the local planning authority intends to achieve those standards.

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)- A generic term used internationally to describe environmental assessment as applied to policies, plans and programmes. The SEA will form an integral part of the preparation process for all Local Development Documents (LDDs) and will be used to explain the environmental implications of policies and development as part of a Sustainability Appraisal (SA).

Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA) – Strategic Flood Risk Assessment is a tool used by the Local Planning Authority to assess flood risk for spatial planning, producing development briefs, setting constraints, informing sustainability appraisals, identifying locations of emergency planning measures and requirements for flood risk assessments.

Strategic Housing and Economic Land Availability Assessment (SHELAA)– Strategic Housing and Economic Land Availability Assessments are a key component of the evidence base to support the delivery of sufficient land for housing and employment to meet an identified need. These assessments are required by national policy set out in the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF).

Submission Stage – The formal passing of the Development Plan Document to the Government for their assessment and examination.

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) – Measures to increase the permeability of surfaces therefore allowing a slower release of water.

Supplementary Planning Documents (SPDs) – A guidance document that supplements policies and proposals in the Local Plan. It will be subject to public consultation, but will not form part of the Development Plan or be subject to Independent Examination.

Sustainability Appraisal (SA)– The examination of a Local Development Document (LDDs) to ascertain whether its policies and proposals accord with the principles of sustainable development. The Sustainability Appraisal will incorporate a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).

Sustainable Development - A widely used definition drawn up by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987: "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". The Government has set out four aims for sustainable development in its strategy "A Better Quality of Life, a Strategy for Sustainable Development in the UK". The four aims, to be achieved at the same time, are: social progress which recognises the needs of everyone; effective protection of the environment; the prudent use of natural resources; and maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment.

Sustainable Transport - Public transport such as bus and rail, which is considered to be less damaging to the environment and which contributes less to traffic congestion than one-person car journeys.

Transit site – Gypsy/Traveller Site intended for short stays. Such sites are usually permanent, but there is a limit on the length of time residents can stay.

Travel Plan (sometimes called a 'green travel' or 'commuter' plan) - A travel plan aims to promote sustainable travel choices (for example cycling) as an alternative to single occupancy car journeys that may impact negatively on the environment, congestion and road safety. Travel Plans can be required when granting planning permission for new developments.

Travelling Showpeople - Commonly referred to as Showmen, these are a group of occupational Travellers who work on travelling shows and fairs across the UK and abroad.

Unregulated carbon emissions – Emissions generated by a building that are outside of the scope of Building Regulations, e.g. through use of energy associated with equipment such as fridges, washing machines, TVs, computers, lifts, and cooking.

Village Centre - The offer and range of facilities and services are generally the same as Large Village Centres. The difference being the catchment area is more limited by either the size of the centre, or the location of one or more centres nearby.

Vision - A brief description of how the area will be changed at the end of the plan period.

Whole Life Carbon Assessment – A full assessment of the carbon emissions resulting from the materials, construction and the use of a building over its entire life, including its demolition and disposal.

Windfall Site - A site not specifically identified in the planning process, but which unexpectedly becomes available for development during the lifetime of a plan. Most "windfalls" are referred to in a housing context.

Written Representations - A procedure by which representations on development plans and DPDs can be dealt with without the need for a full public inquiry or independent examination.

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